Analyses

“May you be the mother of a thousand sons” – the status of women in Indian society

The 1950 Indian Constitution introduced the principle of equal opportunities for gender equality, which grants women and men the same rights in family life, political, social and economic life. So why is it that nearly forty per cent of girls aged 15-17 do not attend school, the custom of dowry giving is still cultivated and prenatal sex selection is still a huge social problem? 

Instytut Boyma 06.07.2021

The 1950 Indian Constitution introduced the principle of equal opportunities for gender equality, which grants women and men the same rights in family life, political, social and economic life. So why is it that nearly forty per cent of girls aged 15-17 do not attend school, the custom of dowry giving is still cultivated and prenatal sex selection is still a huge social problem? 

The dialogue on the status of women in Indian society usually arises in the West when there is news of scandalous incidents of brutal violence or when European women are the victims. A story from 2012 – the gang rape and murder of a female student on a bus in New Delhi – focused the attention of the Western world on the still difficult topic of women’s rights. 

Significant changes in the status of Indian women occurred after India gained independence. Under the Constitution, they can participate in all areas such as education, politics, media, arts and culture, service sector, science and technology, etc. The Constitution of India guarantees equality of all women in India (Article 14), prohibition of discrimination by the State (Article 15(1)), equality of opportunity (Article 16), equal pay for equal work (Article 39(d)). The Constitution also includes specific provisions to be adopted by the State in favour of women and children (Article 15(3)) and demands for the renunciation of practices that offend the dignity of women (Article 51(A)(e)). The State is also to provide fair and humane working conditions and maternity allowance (Article 42). Although the position of women has been elevated in the eyes of the law, huge disparities remain. Women in modern India have made significant progress in every sphere of life, but they still have to fight against the deep-rooted patriarchalism in society. Currently, the issue of the status of Indian women is embedded in the conflict of law and tradition (Staniszewska, 2013: 42). Viewing the wider social context allows for a deeper understanding of this complex issue. 

Between tradition and modernity

The social system of ancient India was formed on the basis of the concept of “varṇāśrama dharma” or “dharma of class and period of life.” It divided society into social classes to which tasks and functions were clearly assigned, everyone knew his duties and could devote himself fully to his responsibilities. The aim of this system was to provide a structure that would enable people to work according to their natural inclinations and to organise society in such a way that everyone, regardless of his position, could develop spiritually. For the performance of one’s duties was to serve the Supreme Lord. Social hierarchy is a feature most characteristic of ancient Indian sociology. The family, on the other hand, is the basic unit of society whose fate was decided by the master of the house. It was the duty of the family to obey him. The place of woman was also clearly marked and described by the ancient authoritative law texts, which depict her as a permanently minor being:

 

“Nothing – not even in the depths of her home – 

she should not do of her own free will.

as a child subject to her father,

in her youth to her husband,

and when the husband dies, to his sons,

let her never have a will of her own…” (Basham, 1964: 234)

 

The social position of the woman depended on the man. Woman should worship him regardless of the qualities he possessed. The fact of being a man was supposed to be fully sufficient: 

 

“They do not care if the husband is beautiful,

They don’t care

To his years,

They delight in the handsome

And beautyless,

As long as he is a man.” (Stępień, 2007: 80)

 

Despite the exaggerated duty of obedience, the position of women in marriage was not without glorious elements. There are texts that emphasise the dignity of women:

 

“A wife is half of her husband, 

the best of friends,

the root of the three purposes of life

and everything that will help him in the next world.

With his wife by his side, the husband will do great deeds….

thanks to her, courage lives in him.

His wife is his best support…

(…)

Because a woman is an eternal field,

On which the atman is born.” (Basham, 1964: 235)

 

Despite the attitude towards women in ancient India, which is full of contradictions, there is no doubt that India remained a patriarchal society where the role of women as wives and mothers is highly desirable.

“May you be the mother of a thousand sons” 

“May you be the mother of a thousand sons” are the wishes that Indian women make to each other on their wedding day. They are a form of blessing. Despite significant changes in social mentality, in many Indian homes girls are still a burden on the family and are seen as a problem. They have to be educated and married off, and a dowry has to be collected beforehand. From a material point of view, this is unprofitable, because once married, the woman leaves home. Families often decide to marry girls at a very young age. For this reason, only 55% of girls aged 15-17 attend school (compared to 65% of boys) in rural areas. Marriage is the main reason for girls to miss out on education, both in urban areas – affecting 7.4% of girls and 0.1% of boys – and in rural areas 8.1% of girls and 0.3% of boys. (NFHS-4, 2015-16: 51). Selective abortion and abandonment of girls soon after birth is still a major social problem in India.  In 1994, the government introduced a law banning prenatal diagnostic techniques for determining fetal sex. Doctors are also not allowed to inform parents about the sex of the child. In reality, however, more than a quarter (26%) of abortions are performed by women at home. Many children under the age of five are still not registered at birth, however, the percentage of reported births has increased by over 50 percentage points in the years since 2005 mainly in northern India (NFHS-4, 2015-16: 18).

Looking at it from a different perspective, many educated women today are taking up all sorts of professions that were assigned to men: engineering, medicine, politics, teaching, etc. Many of them join universities and colleges. In fact, India has the largest population of working women in the world and more doctors, surgeons and professors than the United States (Sujata, 2014: 289).

Conclusion

The issue of the status of women in contemporary India occurs on the grounds of the conflict of tradition and law. This conflict creates a strong tension in the society as ancient customs and deep-rooted beliefs clash with modernity (Staniszewska, 2013: 42). Constitutional provisions are not enough to gain a respectable position in society. The law cannot immediately change many years of traditions or beliefs deeply rooted in the minds of not only the individual but the whole society. Increased awareness and education are effective tools for making these changes. Modern women have started taking care of their social, emotional, cultural, religious and economic needs. Women have become an instrument of social change in India. They have definitely gained more rights over the years, but the overall situation is not yet satisfactory. To quote Swami Vivekananda: “One cannot think of the prosperity of the world unless the condition of women is improved” (MJSSH 2019: 258-266).

Magdalena Rybczyńska

She graduated with a degree in Indology at the Jagiellonian University, and a degree in Computer Science and Econometrics at the University of Economics in Krakow. Coordinator of the research project On the Gandhi’s route, realised in 2008 in India. She has several years of experience in the outsourcing industry. Main fields of interest are: transformations taking place in Asia and its impact on the global economy; philosophy’s relationship to economics and politics. Passionate about yoga, studying its practice embedded in Indian religious traditions. Knowledge of languages: English, Sanskrit, Hindi, Urdu and the basics of Tamil.

czytaj więcej

Online Course: “Feminism and Democracy: a Deep Dive”

The course will be taught via interactive workshops, employing the Adam Institute’s signature “Betzavta – the Adam Institute’s Facilitation Method“, taught by its creator, Dr. Uki Maroshek-Klarman. The award-winning “Betzavta” method is rooted in an empirical approach to civic education, interpersonal communication and conflict resolution.

Online Course: “Free Speech, Incitement and Hate Speech and their relevance in Poland’s political discourse and landscape” with Dr. Uki Maroshek-Klarman

The Adam Institute invites you to join us for a new engaging course, tailored to participants from Poland, taught on ZOOM.

#WomeninBoym Initiative

At the Boym Institute we are coming out with new initiative: #WomeninBoym, which aims to show the activity of this – often less visible – half of society. We will write about what women think, say and do. We will also publicise what women are researching and writing.

Patrycja Pendrakowska as a founding member of the WICCI’s India-EU Business Council

By sharing knowledge, business opportunities, and best practices the Council generates awareness of women's contributions in developing the India-EU relations.

Polish-Kazakh Business Forum

An interview with Mr. Meirzhan Yussupov, Chairman of the Board of the “National Company” KAZAKH INVEST” JSC - Member of the Board of Directors of the Company

Patrycja Pendrakowska and Paweł Behrendt on navigating Sino-Polish relations

We are proud to annouce, that Patrycja Pendrakowska and Paweł Behrendt made a contribution to the newest project of the Baltic Security Foundation, The Jamestown Foundation and the Baltic-American Freedom Foundation.

The strategic imperatives driving ASEAN-EU free trade talks: colliding values as an obstacle

Recently revived talks aimed at the conclusion of an inter-regional free trade agreement between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the European Union (EU) are driven by strategic imperatives of both regions.

Why is stronger foreign investment protection needed in relations with China?

One of the key elements of the protection of foreign investment (and thus the foreign investor) is the mechanism for resolving disputes between the state and the foreign investor. The mechanism itself may take different forms...

What connects shamans and generals? On the problem of verification of internal conflicts of North Korea

The number of confirmed executions and frequent disappearances of politicians remind us that in North Korea the rules of social Darwinism apply. Any attempt to limit Kim Jong-un's power may be considered hostile and ruthless.

Book review: “Unveiling the North Korean economy”

Book review of "Unveiling the North Korean economy", written by Kim Byung-yeon and published by Cambridge University Press in 2016.B. Tauris in 2017.

The link between EU Aid and Good Governance in Central Asia

Nowadays all the CA states continue transitioning into the human-centered model of governance where the comprehensive needs of societies must be satisfied, nevertheless, the achievements are to a greater extent ambiguous.

Book review: “Europe – North Korea. Between Humanitarianism And Business?”

Book review of "Europe – North Korea. Between Humanitarianism And Business?", written by Myung-Kyu Park, Bernhard Seliger, Sung-Jo Park (Eds.) and published by Lit Verlag in 2010.

Kyrgyzstan on the Path to Political Stabilisation

On 10 January, early presidential elections were held in Kyrgyzstan, following the resignation of the incumbent, President Zheenbekov. The atmosphere in which the vote was conducted remained tense. This had been the case since the results of the October elections were announced, in which the opposition grouping failed to win a single parliamentary seat.

We’re Stronger Together – an Interview with Minister Marcin Przydacz

"Cooperation and investments – we are absolutely up for it. However, we prefer to keep a certain degree of caution when it comes to entrusting the transfer of technology and critical infrastructure to external investors. The security of Poland and the EU should be considered more important than even the greatest economic gains..."

Indian Roundtable – Poland’s Challenges and Opportunities in the Subcontinent

In recent years, India has been the fastest growing among the major countries' economies in the world. (...) In the coming decades, the Subcontinent's largest country may remain one of the pillars of global economic growth. This is one of the reasons why the country is already the most popular destination for Polish foreign investment in the Asian-Pacific region.

Online Course: “Conflict Resolution and Democracy”

The course will be taught via interactive workshops, employing the Adam Institute’s signature “Betzavta – the Adam Institute’s Facilitation Method“, taught by its creator, Dr. Uki Maroshek-Klarman. The award-winning “Betzavta” method is rooted in an empirical approach to civic education, interpersonal communication and conflict resolution.

Chinese work on the military use of artificial intelligence

Intensive modernization and the desire to catch up with the armed forces of the United States made chinese interest in the military application of futuristic technologies grow bigger.

Development strategies for Ulaanbaatar according to the conception for the city’s 2040 General Development Plan- part 1

In the first part of this analysis of Ulaanbaatar’s winning 2040 General Development Plan Conception (GDPC) I look into the historical preconditions for the city’s planned development as well as present the legislative climate in which works on Ulaanbaatar’s future development strategies have recently found themselves.

Patrycja Pendrakowska for Observer Research Foundation: “Guiding democracy through Covid19: Poland shows us what not to do”

We would like to inform, that Observer Research Foundation has published article of Patrycja Pendrakowska - the Boym Institute Analyst and President of the Board.

China – USA in the South China Sea

The trade war is just one of the problems of confrontation between the United States and the People's Republic of China. Many aspects of this competition coincide in the South China Sea.

Global Security Initiative and Global Development Initiative: Two Wings for Building a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind

Peace and development as the call of our day again face severe challenges on a global scale, with more prominent instability, uncertainty and complexity

Online Course: “Conflict Resolution and Democracy”

The course will be taught via interactive workshops, employing the Adam Institute’s signature “Betzavta – the Adam Institute’s Facilitation Method“, taught by its creator, Dr. Uki Maroshek-Klarman. The award-winning “Betzavta” method is rooted in an empirical approach to civic education, interpersonal communication and conflict resolution.

Globalization of business, education and China: interview with prof. Chiwen Jevons Lee

Interview of Ewelina Horoszkiewicz with prof. Chiwen Jevons Lee on China on globalization of Chinese business education and his thoughts of China’s role in the global marketplace.

Internet, cryptocurrencies & blockchains in North Korea

North Korea is considered as a secretive state, but, paradoxically, the country is developing last trend technologies. With prohibitions restricting the flow of money, the country is turning to bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to finance their programs, instead of coming under new pressure.