Indonesia

Indonesia – between religion and democracy

Indonesia is the largest Muslim democracy in the world. Approximately 88% of the population in Indonesia declares Islamic religion, but in spite of this significant dominance, Indonesia is not a religious state.

Instytut Boyma 05.07.2019

Credits: Arnie Chou / pexels.com

This publication has been automatically translated. If you want to read texts translated professionally, please make a donation and help us develop the institute.

*

There is no unambiguous agreement as to whether Indonesia is a secular state, however, it also does not mean that it is a theocratic state (Salim 2008). Some countries and their systems are located between these two categories – that is Indonesia. According to some researchers in the Indonesian issue, Indonesia can be classified as a  state favorable to religion, but which is regulated and managed in accordance with the Pancasil national ideology [I]. It is pointed out that Indonesian Islam is more moderate than in other Muslim countries.

The start of the Asian financial crisis in 1997, the withdrawal from Suharto in 1998, and the start of a political transition towards democracy have affected both the internal and external identity of the Indonesian society. Before adopting internal political and social stability and economic strength, Indonesia adopted an attitude of a more active policy. Governments after reformasi (after reforms initiated in 1998) were to rebuild the image of Indonesia as a predictable and stable state. This has become one of the national priorities.

Seeking a way to rebuild the international image of Indonesia, new dimensions of national identity were emphasized resulting from social and political changes – above all democratization and the rise of the political significance of Islam.

Islam in Indonesia’s foreign policy

The significance and influence of the Islamic factor in Indonesia’s foreign policy is being discussed, but most researchers recognize that it is not a question of whether an Islamic factor appears, but rather to what extent it affects the policy of Indonesia. Indonesian researcher Rizal Sukma defines the identity of Indonesia as a dual, resulting from the unfinished debate between the nationalist movement and the Islamic movement, which began during the recovery of independence by Indonesia [II]. The nationalist movement claimed that Indonesia can only be a secular state and there is no place for religion in state affairs, and on the other hand, the Islamic movement. The Muslim community wanted a formal relationship of Islam with the state of III]. These forces compete from 1945 to today, and as a result Indonesia acts in between, trying to reconcile both options. Taking this into account – assuming that internal factors shape the external activity of the state – in the international sphere this duality also appears.

Inclusion of democratic values ​​into foreign policy also serves an important internal goal. Undertaking the problems of democratization in foreign policy serves to strengthen democratic values ​​in the country. The society and the international community are starting to see the state as fulfilling the requirements of democracy. The promotion of democratic values ​​on the outside, reminds in an internal dimension, that these values ​​should be strengthened [IV]. Rizal Sukma argues that the consolidation of democracy in Indonesia has given Indonesia the opportunity to play a greater role in the region, but also that Indonesia could start playing significant international roles – as a functioning democracy and as a moderate Muslim state – issues that depend on internal conditions [V ].

Indonesia plays at least a few roles, most often the promoter of democracy, the leader of the region, as well as the bridge connecting various sides: developed and developing countries, democracies with undemocations, Muslim countries with Western countries [VI].

Another role played by Indonesia is the role of the promoter of Muslim democracy. Indonesia initiates bilateral and multilateral meetings, both on the regional and global level. These dialogues aim to improve the image of Islam in the eyes of the West, but also to bring Western culture closer to Muslim societies. These activities concern many initiatives: civilizational and interreligious dialogues, activities on the forum of the Organization of Islamic Conference (including groups D-8), as well as the creation of the Democracy Forum in Bali (BDF).

The article uses excerpts from the publication: Grzywacz, Anna (2019), Indonesia’s (inter) national role as and Muslim model: and model effectiveness model effectiveness rol The rol, The Pacific Review.

The first 50 people can download the whole article:

https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/rkfDVah94rAppdEsRMXp/full?target=10.1080/09512748.2019.1585387

Anna Grzywacz

Analyst on South-East Asia, Singapore and Indonesia. She holds a PhD in Political Science (International Relations). She graduated from International Relations at the Institute of International Relations (East Asian specialty), University of Warsaw. Research interests: international relations in Southeast Asia, foreign policy of Indonesia and Singapore, culture in foreign policy of ASEAN countries, postcolonialism. Recent publications: Polityka zagraniczna Singapuru w regionie Azji i Pacyfiku, Warsaw 2019; Indonesia’s (Inter)national Role as a Muslim Democracy Model: Effectiveness and Conflict Between the Conception and Prescription Roles

czytaj więcej

Are “Climate Refugees” (Just) About Climate?

As the awareness of the scale and pervasiveness of climate impacts on human societies keeps rising, so does the frequency with which the terms “climate refugees” and “climate migrants” are being used in the public discourse “to describe those who are being displaced due to adverse consequences related to climate change” (Atapattu, 2020).

Online Course: “Free Speech, Incitement and Hate Speech and their relevance in Poland’s political discourse and landscape” with Dr. Uki Maroshek-Klarman

The Adam Institute invites you to join us for a new engaging course, tailored to participants from Poland, taught on ZOOM.

Online Course: “Conflict Resolution and Democracy”

The course will be taught via interactive workshops, employing the Adam Institute’s signature “Betzavta – the Adam Institute’s Facilitation Method“, taught by its creator, Dr. Uki Maroshek-Klarman. The award-winning “Betzavta” method is rooted in an empirical approach to civic education, interpersonal communication and conflict resolution.

Development Strategies for Ulaanbaatar According to the Conception for the City’s 2040 General Development Plan – Part 2

This is the second part of an inquiry into Ulaanbaatar’s winning 2040 General Development Plan Conception (GDPC). In this part of paper, I look into some of the plans and/or solutions proposed in Ulaanbaatar’s 2040 GDPC.

From ‘strategic engagement’ to ‘competition’. Interview with William Yu

Ewelina Horoszkiewicz in conversation with Professor William Yu (UCLA) on USA, China and Europe. Professor William Yu  is an economist with the UCLA Anderson Forecast and specializes in the economies of Los Angeles and China.

#WomeninBoym Initiative

At the Boym Institute we are coming out with new initiative: #WomeninBoym, which aims to show the activity of this – often less visible – half of society. We will write about what women think, say and do. We will also publicise what women are researching and writing.

Patrycja Pendrakowska for Observer Research Foundation: “Managing fear and easing lockdown in Poland”

We would like to inform, that Observer Research Foundation has published article of Patrycja Pendrakowska - the Boym Institute Analyst and President of the Board.

Not only tests and masks: the history of Polish-Vietnamese mutual helpfulness

On the initiative of the Vietnamese community in Poland and Vietnamese graduates of Polish universities, our country received support from Vietnam - a country that deals with the threat posed by Sars-Cov-2 very effectively.

Online Course: “Conflict Resolution and Democracy”

The course will be taught via interactive workshops, employing the Adam Institute’s signature “Betzavta – the Adam Institute’s Facilitation Method“, taught by its creator, Dr. Uki Maroshek-Klarman. The award-winning “Betzavta” method is rooted in an empirical approach to civic education, interpersonal communication and conflict resolution.

China’s Social Credit System – How will it affect Polish enterprises in China?

The Social Credit System currently being rolled out in China may pose significant organisational and legal challenges for both foreign and Polish entities operating in China. We invite you to read our report, prepared in cooperation between the Boym Institute and Kochanski & Partners.

Drug and Road Initiative, that is the Silk Road of drug

This paper deals with the issue of drug business in post-Soviet Central Asia, a region that plays a key role in the trafficking of banned substances from Asia (mainly Afghanistan) to Europe. The study briefly presents the areas that make up the picture of drug business in Central Asia, paying attention to production and distribution.

Book review: “GDR International Development Policy Involvement. Doctrine and Strategies between Illusions and Reality 1960-1990, The example (South) Africa”

Book review of "GDR International Development Policy Involvement. Doctrine and Strategies between Illusions and Reality 1960-1990, The example (South) Africa", written by Ulrich van der Heyden and published by Lit Verlag in 2013.

Book review: “North Korea’s Cities”

Book review of "North Korea’s Cities", written by Rainer Dormels and published byJimoondang Publishing Company in 2014.

Dr. Nicolas Levi with a lecture in Seoul

On May 24 Dr. Nicolas Levi gave a lecture on Balcerowicz's plan in the context of North Korea. The speech took place as part of the seminar "Analyzing the Possibility of Reform and its Impact on Human Rights in North Korea". The seminar took place on May 24 at the prestigious Yonsei University in Seoul, South Korea.

Coronavirus outbreak in Poland – General information and recommendations for entrepreneurs

Kochański & Partners and the Boym Institute engaged in delivering information about latest after-effects of COVID-19 pandemia, which has begun to spread in Poland during the past days.

Liquidation of the Polish colony in Manchuria (north-eastern China)

Ms. Łucja Drabczak - A Polish woman born in Harbin, she spent her childhood in China. She returned to Poland at the age of 10. She is the author of the book 'China... Memories from my childhood'. She contacted us to convey special family memories related to leaving Manchuria in 1949.

Patrycja Pendrakowska for Observer Research Foundation: “The Polish example: Defending the castle in the European East”

We would like to inform, that Observer Research Foundation has published article of Patrycja Pendrakowska - the Boym Institute Analyst and President of the Board.

Interview with Uki Maroshek-Klarman on “Betzavta” method

Interview with Uki Maroshek-Klarman - Academic Director of the Adam Institute for Democracy and Peace in Israel. Founder of "Betzavta" method, which was created with intention of streghtening people's participation in society and making conflicts easier to solve.

The unification of the two Koreas: an ASEAN perspective

The aim of the paper is to discuss the role of the ASEAN as a critical component of the solution to the Korean unification. The Korean Unification refers to the potential reunification of both Koreas into a single sovereign Korean state led by the leadership of the two Koreas.

The Dasgupta Review on Women and the Environmental Crisis

Commissioned in 2019 by the British government and published in February 2021, The Dasgupta Review has been likened to the 2006 Stern Review. Where the latter brought to widespread attention the many failings of the world economy in the face of global warming, the former makes similar points as regards biodiversity – and identifies the unique challenges faced by women.

Book review: “Europe – North Korea. Between Humanitarianism And Business?”

Book review of "Europe – North Korea. Between Humanitarianism And Business?", written by Myung-Kyu Park, Bernhard Seliger, Sung-Jo Park (Eds.) and published by Lit Verlag in 2010.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak and emerging contractual claims

With China one of the key players in the global supply chain, supplying major manufacturing companies with commodities, components and final products, the recent emerging outbreak of Coronavirus provides for a number of organizational as well as legal challenges.

Not only tests and masks: the history of Polish-Vietnamese mutual helpfulness

On the initiative of the Vietnamese community in Poland and Vietnamese graduates of Polish universities, our country received support from Vietnam - a country that deals with the threat posed by Sars-Cov-2 very effectively.

Women’s change in Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan, under the leadership of President Shavkat Mirziyoyev, has embarked on a path of reform. Almost daily, the media there report on new initiatives and projects. It is no coincidence that in December 2019 The Economist awarded Uzbekistan the country of the year title.