Indonesia

Indonesia – between religion and democracy

Indonesia is the largest Muslim democracy in the world. Approximately 88% of the population in Indonesia declares Islamic religion, but in spite of this significant dominance, Indonesia is not a religious state.

Instytut Boyma 05.07.2019

Credits: Arnie Chou / pexels.com

This publication has been automatically translated. If you want to read texts translated professionally, please make a donation and help us develop the institute.

*

There is no unambiguous agreement as to whether Indonesia is a secular state, however, it also does not mean that it is a theocratic state (Salim 2008). Some countries and their systems are located between these two categories – that is Indonesia. According to some researchers in the Indonesian issue, Indonesia can be classified as a  state favorable to religion, but which is regulated and managed in accordance with the Pancasil national ideology [I]. It is pointed out that Indonesian Islam is more moderate than in other Muslim countries.

The start of the Asian financial crisis in 1997, the withdrawal from Suharto in 1998, and the start of a political transition towards democracy have affected both the internal and external identity of the Indonesian society. Before adopting internal political and social stability and economic strength, Indonesia adopted an attitude of a more active policy. Governments after reformasi (after reforms initiated in 1998) were to rebuild the image of Indonesia as a predictable and stable state. This has become one of the national priorities.

Seeking a way to rebuild the international image of Indonesia, new dimensions of national identity were emphasized resulting from social and political changes – above all democratization and the rise of the political significance of Islam.

Islam in Indonesia’s foreign policy

The significance and influence of the Islamic factor in Indonesia’s foreign policy is being discussed, but most researchers recognize that it is not a question of whether an Islamic factor appears, but rather to what extent it affects the policy of Indonesia. Indonesian researcher Rizal Sukma defines the identity of Indonesia as a dual, resulting from the unfinished debate between the nationalist movement and the Islamic movement, which began during the recovery of independence by Indonesia [II]. The nationalist movement claimed that Indonesia can only be a secular state and there is no place for religion in state affairs, and on the other hand, the Islamic movement. The Muslim community wanted a formal relationship of Islam with the state of III]. These forces compete from 1945 to today, and as a result Indonesia acts in between, trying to reconcile both options. Taking this into account – assuming that internal factors shape the external activity of the state – in the international sphere this duality also appears.

Inclusion of democratic values ​​into foreign policy also serves an important internal goal. Undertaking the problems of democratization in foreign policy serves to strengthen democratic values ​​in the country. The society and the international community are starting to see the state as fulfilling the requirements of democracy. The promotion of democratic values ​​on the outside, reminds in an internal dimension, that these values ​​should be strengthened [IV]. Rizal Sukma argues that the consolidation of democracy in Indonesia has given Indonesia the opportunity to play a greater role in the region, but also that Indonesia could start playing significant international roles – as a functioning democracy and as a moderate Muslim state – issues that depend on internal conditions [V ].

Indonesia plays at least a few roles, most often the promoter of democracy, the leader of the region, as well as the bridge connecting various sides: developed and developing countries, democracies with undemocations, Muslim countries with Western countries [VI].

Another role played by Indonesia is the role of the promoter of Muslim democracy. Indonesia initiates bilateral and multilateral meetings, both on the regional and global level. These dialogues aim to improve the image of Islam in the eyes of the West, but also to bring Western culture closer to Muslim societies. These activities concern many initiatives: civilizational and interreligious dialogues, activities on the forum of the Organization of Islamic Conference (including groups D-8), as well as the creation of the Democracy Forum in Bali (BDF).

The article uses excerpts from the publication: Grzywacz, Anna (2019), Indonesia’s (inter) national role as and Muslim model: and model effectiveness model effectiveness rol The rol, The Pacific Review.

The first 50 people can download the whole article:

https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/rkfDVah94rAppdEsRMXp/full?target=10.1080/09512748.2019.1585387

Anna Grzywacz

Analyst on South-East Asia, Singapore and Indonesia. She holds a PhD in Political Science (International Relations). She graduated from International Relations at the Institute of International Relations (East Asian specialty), University of Warsaw. Research interests: international relations in Southeast Asia, foreign policy of Indonesia and Singapore, culture in foreign policy of ASEAN countries, postcolonialism. Recent publications: Polityka zagraniczna Singapuru w regionie Azji i Pacyfiku, Warsaw 2019; Indonesia’s (Inter)national Role as a Muslim Democracy Model: Effectiveness and Conflict Between the Conception and Prescription Roles

czytaj więcej

Paweł Behrendt for 9DASHLINE: The South China Sea – from colonialism to the Cold War

We would like to inform, that 9DASHLINE has published article of Paweł Behrendt - the Boym Institute Analyst, in which he wrote about history of the South China Sea dispute over the 20th century.

Are Polish Universities Really Victims of a Chinese Influence Campaign?

The Chinese Influence Campaign can allegedly play a dangerous role at certain Central European universities, as stated in the article ‘Countering China’s Influence Campaigns at European Universities’, (...) However, the text does ignore Poland, the country with the largest number of universities and students in the region. And we argue, the situation is much more complex.

Book review: “Unveiling the North Korean economy”

Book review of "Unveiling the North Korean economy", written by Kim Byung-yeon and published by Cambridge University Press in 2016.B. Tauris in 2017.

Book review: “GDR International Development Policy Involvement. Doctrine and Strategies between Illusions and Reality 1960-1990, The example (South) Africa”

Book review of "GDR International Development Policy Involvement. Doctrine and Strategies between Illusions and Reality 1960-1990, The example (South) Africa", written by Ulrich van der Heyden and published by Lit Verlag in 2013.

Development Strategies for Ulaanbaatar According to the Conception for the City’s 2040 General Development Plan – Part 2

This is the second part of an inquiry into Ulaanbaatar’s winning 2040 General Development Plan Conception (GDPC). In this part of paper, I look into some of the plans and/or solutions proposed in Ulaanbaatar’s 2040 GDPC.

Krzysztof Zalewski for Observer Research Foundation – “Luxembourg faces the same dilemma as the EU: become a bridge or a fortress”

We would like to inform, that Observer Research Foundation has published article of Krzysztof Zalewski - the Boym Institute Analyst, Chairman of the Board and Editor of the “Tydzień w Azji” weekly.

Liquidation of the Polish colony in Manchuria (north-eastern China)

Ms. Łucja Drabczak - A Polish woman born in Harbin, she spent her childhood in China. She returned to Poland at the age of 10. She is the author of the book 'China... Memories from my childhood'. She contacted us to convey special family memories related to leaving Manchuria in 1949.

Patrycja Pendrakowska for Balkan Development Support: “Western European countries have benefited most from the Chinese capital, the benefits are mutual”

We would like to inform, that Financial Intelligence has published interview for Balkan Development Support with Patrycja Pendrakowska.

Patrycja Pendrakowska for Observer Research Foundation: “Guiding democracy through Covid19: Poland shows us what not to do”

We would like to inform, that Observer Research Foundation has published article of Patrycja Pendrakowska - the Boym Institute Analyst and President of the Board.

Dr. Nicolas Levi with a lecture in Seoul

On May 24 Dr. Nicolas Levi gave a lecture on Balcerowicz's plan in the context of North Korea. The speech took place as part of the seminar "Analyzing the Possibility of Reform and its Impact on Human Rights in North Korea". The seminar took place on May 24 at the prestigious Yonsei University in Seoul, South Korea.

Book review: “North Korea’s Cities”

Book review of "North Korea’s Cities", written by Rainer Dormels and published byJimoondang Publishing Company in 2014.

Dr Krzysztof Zalewski participates in the Kigali Global Dialogue in Rwanda

A short note and photo gallery from the chairman of the Board of the Boym Institute, who stays in Rwanda at the "Kigali Global Dialogue" conference.

Book review: “North Korean Defectors in a New and Competitive Society”

Book review of "North Korean Defectors in a New and Competitive Society", written by Lee Ahlam - assistant professor in the Department of Educational Leadership and Human Resource Development at Xavier University Cincinnati, Ohio.

Book review: “Europe – North Korea. Between Humanitarianism And Business?”

Book review of "Europe – North Korea. Between Humanitarianism And Business?", written by Myung-Kyu Park, Bernhard Seliger, Sung-Jo Park (Eds.) and published by Lit Verlag in 2010.

Coronavirus and climate policies: long-term consequences of short-term initiatives

As large parts of the world are gradually becoming habituated to living in the shadow of the coronavirus pandemic, global attention has turned to restarting the economy. One of the most consequential impacts of these efforts will be that on our climate policies and environmental conditions.

Book review: “Korean Diaspora in Postwar Japan – Geopolitics, Identity and Nation-Building”

Book review of "Korean Diaspora in Postwar Japan -  Geopolitics, Identity and Nation-Building", written by Kim Myung-ja and published by I.B Tauris in 2017.

Online Course: “Free Speech, Incitement and Hate Speech and their relevance in Poland’s political discourse and landscape” with Dr. Uki Maroshek-Klarman

The Adam Institute invites you to join us for a new engaging course, tailored to participants from Poland, taught on ZOOM.

Adam Institute for Democracy & Peace – Crowdfunding Campaign December 2020

Democracy in Israel is in crisis. And if we don't educate for democracy, it just won't exist. It's that simple. The actual teaching of democracy, on the other hand, isn't so simple. It requires experience, theoretical and practical knowledge and the flexibility to adapt to our ever-changing reality.

The unification of the two Koreas: an ASEAN perspective

The aim of the paper is to discuss the role of the ASEAN as a critical component of the solution to the Korean unification. The Korean Unification refers to the potential reunification of both Koreas into a single sovereign Korean state led by the leadership of the two Koreas.

China – USA in the South China Sea

The trade war is just one of the problems of confrontation between the United States and the People's Republic of China. Many aspects of this competition coincide in the South China Sea.

Coronavirus outbreak in Poland – General information and recommendations for entrepreneurs

Kochański & Partners and the Boym Institute engaged in delivering information about latest after-effects of COVID-19 pandemia, which has begun to spread in Poland during the past days.

“Green growth” may well be more of the same

Witnessing the recent flurry of political activity amid the accelerating environmental emergency, from the Green New Deal to the UN climate summits to European political initiatives, one could be forgiven for thinking that things are finally moving forward.

Workshop – Liberalism vs authoritarianism: political ideas in Singapore and China

We cordially invite you to a workshop session “Liberalism vs authoritarianism: political ideas in Singapore and China”. The workshop is organized by Patrycja Pendrakowska and Maria Kądzielska at the Department of Philosophy, University of Warsaw on ZOOM.

Foreign Direct Investment in Vietnam

Thanks to continuous economic development, Vietnam attracts a record number of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). The catalyst for such a strong growth of FDI in Vietnam is not only the ongoing trade war between the US and China, but also new international agreements.